What is diabetes?
is the condition in which
the body does not properly
process food for use as energy. Most of
the food we eat is
turned into glucose,
or sugar, for our bodies to use for energy. The pancreas makes
a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into cells of
our bodies. When you have diabetes, your body either
doesn’t make enough insulin, or can’t use
its own insulin aswell
as it should. This causes sugars
to build up in
Types of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes, previously called
mellitus or juvenile-onset diabetes,
5-10% of all diagnosed
cases of diabetes. Risk factors
are less well defined for
Type 1 diabetes than for Type
2 diabetes, but autoimmune,
genetic, and environmental factors are involved
in the development of this type of
Type 2 diabetes was previously called non-insulin-dependent diabetes
mellitus or adult-onset diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes may account
for about 90-95%
of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Risk
factors include older age,
obesity, family history,
prior history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose
tolerance, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity.Gestational diabetes develops in 2-5% of all pregnancies
usually disappears after pregnancy. Women who have
had gestational diabetes
are at increased risk for later
Common Symptoms of Diabetes
The following symptoms of diabetes
some people with type 2 diabetes
have symptoms so mild that they go
unnoticed. Early detection and treatment
of diabetes can decrease
the risk of developing the complications of diabetes.
·Sudden Vision Changes/Pain
or Pressure in one of both eyes
that are slow
·Unexplained Weight loss more (type 1)
·Tingling, pain, or numbness
in the hands/feet (type
Proper nutrition is essential for all diabetic
Control of blood glucose
levels is only one goal of a healthy eating plan
for diabetic people. A diabetic diet helps
achieve and maintain a normal body weight, while preventing the
and vascular complications
of diabetes.There is no prescribed diet
plan for diabetes.
Eating plans are tailored
to fit each individual's needs,
schedules, and eating habits. Each diabetes diet plan must be balanced with the intake of insulin
and oral diabetes
medications. In general,
the principles of a healthy
diabetes diet are the same for
everyone.Consumption of various foods in a healthy diet includes whole grains,
fruits, non-fat dairy
products, beans, lean meats,
vegetarian substitutes, poultry or fish.
The American Diabetes
many experts recommend that 50% to 60% of
daily calories come from
carbohydrates, 12% to 20% from protein, and no more
than 30% from fat.
People with diabetes
may benefit from eating small meals throughout
the day, instead of eating
one or two heavy meals. No foods are
absolutely forbidden for
people with diabetes.
Attention to portion control and advance
meal planning can help people with diabetes
enjoy the same meals as
for Avoiding Complications From Diabetes
of diabetes does not always mean a lifetime
complications. By devising
a plan of action for
your diabetes management,
you’ll reduce many of the risks
associated with having diabetes.
· Take control of blood glucose.
This is your first line of defense against diabetes
complications. By maintaining tight control over your blood glucose, you may minimize
damaging effects of unpredictable glucose levels on your body.
You’ll also be lowering your A1C level, a test doctors use to determine how well diabetes
is being controlled. Aim for an A1C reading of less than 7%.
· Watch your cholesterol. Total cholesterol levels should
generally be 200 mg/dl, but discuss personal
goals with your doctor.
Watch out for LDL and HDL cholesterol levels, too—LDL can clog the walls of arteries,
so keep it under 70 mg/dl to avoid problems.
HDL cholesterol should be greater than 40 mg/dl for men, and 50 mg/dl for women. Triglycerides, a type of fat, should also be under 150 mg/dl.
· Keep blood pressure in check. Blood pressure readings measure the pressure against the walls of your blood vessels. High blood pressure
is more common in people
with diabetes, and increases your risk of stroke,
heart attack, kidney, and eye diseases.
Aim for a reading
of 130/80 or lower.
· Don’t forget your kidneys. Kidneys are the organs that make sure the fluids
in your body are balanced and processed properly. When you have diabetes,
your kidneys can become compromised due to poorly
controlled blood glucose and high blood pressure, so be certain
to have a microalbumin test at least once per year, with a goal of less than 30 micrograms per milligram creatinine.
· Lookout for your eyes. High blood glucose can cause serious
vision problems. If you have diabetes, it is crucial to have a dilated eye exam once per year. If you have any vision problems, report them to your doctor
· Examine your feet. It’s very important for people with diabetes to check their feet for wounds or fissures on a daily basis. If you discover
a wound, treat it immediately and monitor
the healing process.
Diabetes Care Schedule
Take Good Care of Yourself
Every Three Months
Every Six Months
- Physical check-up (exam) by your provider
- Complete foot exam
- Check cholesterol, kidney functions and other lab tests
- Complete (dilated) diabetic eye exam by an eye doctor
- Flu shot
Remember to check your feet for any cuts, blisters, or sores